2013 Multiple

The water relations and irrigation requirements of avocado (persea americana mill.): a review

Authors: Carr, M.K.V.

The results of research on the water relations and irrigation need of avocado are collated and reviewed in an attempt to link fundamental studies on crop physiology to irrigation practices. Background information is given on the centre of origin (Mexico and Central America) and the three distinct ecological areas where avocados are grown commercially: (1) Cool, semi-arid climates with winter-dominant rainfall (e.g. Southern California, Chile, Israel); (2) Humid, subtropical climates with summer-dominant

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2002 Multiple

Water stress affects leaf anatomy, gas exchange, water relations and growth of two avocado cultivars

Authors: Chartzoulakis, K.; Patakas, A.; Kofidis, G.; Bosabalidis, A.; Nastou, A.

Two cultivars of avocado (Persea americana Mill., 'Fuerte' and 'Hass') plants, grown in 501 containers, were studied under two irrigation regimes for 6 months in order to evaluate the growth response and leaf physiological and anatomical changes induced by moderate water stress. Irrigation was applied when soil water potential reached at -0.03 and -0.5 MPa for the wet and dry treatments, respectively. Leaf anatomy changed in water-stressed leaves, which could have accounted for the decreased stomata]

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2021 Multiple

Water management and salinity adaptation approaches of Avocado trees: A review for hot-summer Mediterranean climate

Authors: Kourgialas, N.; Dokou, Z.

The production and consumption of avocado has increased significantly over the past years, experiencing a steady expansion into new markets around the world. This review paper focuses on avocado cultivation in its new markets with hot-summer Mediterranean climate. A significant literature gap exists on the viability of this crop in such data environments which experience limited availability of water in the summer exacerbated by climate change and potential salinity issues in irrigation water, typical

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2022 Multiple

Short vs. Long-Distance Avocado Supply Chains: Life Cycle Assessment Impact Associated to Transport and Effect of Fruit Origin and Supply Conditions Chain on Primary and Secondary Metabolites

Authors: Pedreschi, R.; Ponce, E.; Hernández, I.; Fuentealba, C.; Urbina, A.; González-Fernández, J.; Hormaza, J.; Campos, D.; Chirinos, R.; Aguayo, E.

Avocado consumption and trade are increasing worldwide, with North America and Europe being the main importing regions. Spain is the major European avocado producer (90% of the production), yet it only supplies 10% of the market. Consequently, more than 90% of the avocados consumed in Europe are imported from overseas, mainly from Chile and Peru. In this work, the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) impact associated with the transport of two avocado supply chains (short (Spanish) and long (Chilean)) and

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2020 Multiple

Avocado Production: Water Footprint and Socio-economic Implications

Authors: Sommaruga, R.; Eldridge, H.M.

The market for avocados is among the fastest expanding markets worldwide, and consumption, particularly in North America and Europe, has increased during recent decades due largely to a combination of socio-economic and marketing factors. Avocado production, however, is associated with significant water conflicts, stresses and hot spots, as well as with other negative environmental and socio-economic impacts on local communities in the main production zones. In considering near-future climatic change

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