2000 California

Long-Term Evapotranspiration from Coastal Avocado/Citrus Orchard

Authors: Grismer, M.

Very limited citrus and avocado orchard evapotranspiration data are available, and practically no published information is available considering citrus/avocado evapotranspiration ETc on steeply sloping fields in coastal climates. Often the data available are from measurements based on limited time periods, and season-to-season orchard water use variability is unknown. The objective of this project was to obtain such long-term-field ETc data. Of particular interest was determination of the monthly

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2017 Chile

Responses of avocado production to variation in irrigation levels

Authors: Holzapfel, E.; de Souza, J.A.; Jara. J.; Guerra, H.C.

The effects of four irrigation regimes on fruit production and size were evaluated for three seasons in a mature ‘Hass’ avocado orchard (Persea americana Mill.). The research was conducted in Chile’s Central Valley on a clay loam soil at the surface and sandy loam from 0.3 to 0.9 m. Climate zone is sub-humid, Mediterranean-type. A completely randomized block design was used with four applied water treatments (25, 50, 75, and 100% of reference evapotranspiration, ETo), estimated on the basis

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2011 Chile

Different levels of water and fertilizer application in 'Hass' avocado trees during four seasons in the Peumo Valley of Chile

Authors: Holzapfel, E.; Jara, J.; Valderrama, N.

A research study was carried out during four seasons between December 2003 to May 2007, in five years old ‘Hass’ avocado trees (Persea americana Mill.) in the Peumo Valley, Chile. Its objective was to analyze the effects of two doses of fertilizer and four differential levels of water application (25, 50, 75 and 100% of the theoretical water volume required by the plant) on the production and quality of the fruit. A split-plot experimental design with allocation in completely randomized blocks

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2022 New Zealand

The effect of soil type, fruit load and shaded area on ‘Hass’ avocado (Persea americana Mill.) water use and crop coefficients

Authors: Kaneko, T.; Gould, N.; Campbell, D.; Snelgar, P.; Clearwater, M.

‘Hass’ avocado tree water use was quantified within orchards located in the three main avocado growing regions of New Zealand, from 2016 to 2019. The three regions, the Bay of Plenty, the Whangarei District and the Aupouri Peninsula in the Far North District, differ in climate and soil type (allophanic, clay, and sandy soils, respectively). At each site, local meteorological conditions were monitored, avocado tree water use was quantified using heat-pulse sap flow measurement, total leaf area

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2022 New Zealand

Carbon and water footprinting of avocado production in New Zealand

Authors: Majumdar, S.; McLaren, S.; Sorensen, S.; Siebert, B.

"The avocado sector in New Zealand is growing rapidly and is driven particularly by demand in overseas markets. To develop a better understanding of the environmental impacts associated with the New Zealand avocado supply chain, an environmental Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) was undertaken of this sector, focusing on climate change and water use.
For the carbon footprint, it was found that fertiliser production and use, and fuel use, dominated the climate change impact category for orchard activities.

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2020 South Africa

Water use of an intermediate and a mature avocado orchard

Authors: Mazhawu, E.; Clulow, A.D.; Taylor, N.J.; Savage, M.J.

The scarce water resources in South Africa are vulnerable to the increasing pressure of a changing climate. The recent drought experienced in South Africa (2014-2017) has negatively affected the fruit industry, highlighting the need to optimise water use efficiency (WUE) as well as accurately estimate water use. With avocado production in South Africa being export-oriented and dependant on irrigation, proper water management is vital to minimising water use, while maintaining fruit yield and quality.

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